Comparison and/or Contrast
In comparing items one can either consider the similarities or the differences that exist between them. The idea is to give a ground to which someone can relate or differentiate the items. Primarily comparison and contrast are used in concepts which fall within the same classification but which possesses inherent differences or similarities that cannot be readily evident to the observer. Comparison and contrast can be useful especially where new concepts are introduced to the observer or reader. In developing comparison and contrast, it is important to start from the known to the unknown so that the person can understand the similarities and differences from a known point of view. Comparison and contrast are sometimes depended on each other so that a feature observable in one object or concept becomes the point of comparison or contrast between two objects.
Cause and Effect
Case and effect are not mutually dependent on each other. They are unique concepts that depend on factors which are unique to them. Cause and effect essentially involve evaluating and analyzing the causative factors for an event or occurrence and the effect that are likely to come up as a result of the event. Cause and effect are not mutually depended because a particular event can lead to a different effect depending on factors such as timing and the environment in which the event takes place. In the same way, cause can differ in the events which could be seen as similar. In other words, similar events can be caused by different factors. Thus each event is subject to the unique causative factors. In the same way, effects depend on the conditions which exist at the time so that each is unique. Analyzing cause and effect requires that one considers different elements including the reason for the event, the time, and the environment in which the event occurs.