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Giovanni Gentile

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Giovanni was born in Castevetrano and was inspired by intellectuals from Italy where he obtained the idea of autoctisi. In addition, he was strongly influenced by idealists from Germany and a school of thought by Karl Marx, Fichte, and Hegel through which he discovered the idea of a wisenschaftsclehre, which is a structure theory of knowledge that does not make assumptions. Giovanni won in the fierce competition thereby emerging as one of the prestigious students who enrolled in the humanities’ faculty. In his academic career, Giovanni Gentile was a professor in philosophy history at Pelermo University. In the year, 1923, Giovanni was named as the public education minister for Benito Mussolini’s government where he instituted the Riforma Gentile, which is a secondary school reformer system that had an enduring Italian influence.

His work in philosophy took thoughts to be all-embracing, that is, nobody could be left on one’s thought’s sphere; neither could one exceed on their thoughts. Reality was not thinkable only when related to the activities through which it can be thinkable, terming this as unity that lies in the active matter in discussions as well as in the discrete subject where reality comprehends. Each occurrence, if truly noticed, was focused mainly on the unity. Thus, it seemed as a spiritual, immanent, as well as transcendent to everything, which could be contacted with unity. He used philosophic frames in systematizing all subject items in ruling of absolute self-identification, which rendered all hypothesis consequences to be correct.

Giovanni is described as the Fascism philosopher. Furthermore, he was a ghostwriter of the Doctrine of Fascism, which was first published in the year 1932 in the Italian Encyclopedia. He described the Italian Fascism characteristics at that time in his essay, A Doctrine of Fascism. He became a member of the Grand council of fascism, the regime that remained loyal to the Mussolini government until its (Fascist government’s) fall, and thereafter in the year 1943. He was supporting Mussolini during the establishment of Salo Republic, which is a puppet state of Nazi Germany, though he criticized its laws on anti-Jewish accepting government’s appointment. He once was a president of Italy Royal Academy.

Giovanni Gentile was killed by a group that was against fascists, in which Bruno was the leader, as he was returning from Florence where he was attending a prefecture where he mainly advocated for anti-fascist intellectual members’ release. He had a firm belief that the concreteness of fascist philosophy had intelligence that was dialectical as well as better than intellectual scrutiny, which he mainly thought that those opposing the intellectual would reinforce, giving credence to the truth on the Fascism’s superiority.

Gentile with his fellow fascist members took Italy as an entity of single organic force, which bound individuals together through the ancestry. One of the Mussolini leaders of Fascism said that for them, as a nation, it is not just territory but also something, which is spiritual, a nation can be great while it translates into the reality of its forces. The Fascist held that idea concerning the issue of struggling and conflicting in order to move history forward, and not between classes, but between the weak and strong nations. In the essay, A Doctrine and Origin of Fascism, he wrote that humankind can only progress through division, and progress can be achieved through clashing and one of the conflicting sides emerging victorious over the other. The Fascists believed in a national rebirth as well as a new man arising from Fascism, which Gentile named Uomo Fascista. This was similar to Nietzsche’s Ubermensch, which in translation means “superman”. Giovanni misread Nietzsche, consequently causing Zarathustra to speak on the protagonist, contends saying that a man is something, which needs to be overcome; he also added that apes are men’s laughing stock. Similarly, man could be a laughing stock as well to Ubermensch. During this time, Mussolini’s and fascist people displayed people’s superiority through a pompous swagger, bullying, as well as beat their chests, which resembled actions of apes.

The philosophy of fascism failed its purpose in general and can be called absurd. Gentile’s philosophy stood against the positive side of the philosophies as one  which limited the authentic knowledge based on experience. Gentile claimed that fascist philosophy was not skeptical at all, neither was it agnostic nor pessimistic, or passively optimistic. Giovanni Gentile claimed fascism was morally engaging for man  as well as intellectually struggling in practice, which was out of freewill in efforts of creating a new world.  

In conclusion, Geovani Gentile is an Italian philosopher. He was a fascism philosopher and he created his own philosophy system called actual idealism. Gentile stood against psychoanalysis in which no one can abstract on the source, which comes up with its own reality. As people follow his philosophy and any observation empirically, behavior would appear true because imperialism usually adheres to the laws of this philosophy, and being a system that is closed can be said to be true considering its vacuum. Gentile claimed that any coloration on what is externally manifested is created initially from one self, thus, the external is usually a product of psychology. Therefore, most of Giovanni’s philosophical work was based on the explanation of fascism. 

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