Graff effectively persuades the readers on the existence of ‘hidden intellectualism’. He indicates that intellectualism is masked in discussions covering activities such as sports, fashion and other topics. Graff further argues that concealed intellectualism is the foundation of effective education because it enables one to develop argumentative skills. Using pathos, ethos and logos, Graff writes an effective essay.
Graff creates pathos when he uses individual childhood stories to evoke emotions in his introduction. The most significant utilization of pathos is when he employs Michael Warner’s childhood story. This is best illustrated when he quotes Warner by stating that American anti-intellectualism is strongly linked to fundamentalism; religious beliefs formed the strongest foundation for Warner’s intellectual life that surpassed what he received in the mainstream academic life. Graff narrates how Warner’s experience with the Bible study leader laid a foundation for critical analysis. Graff evokes pathos when he quotes Warner concerning Warner’s Bible study leader questioning the ability of God to know the future. This story evokes spiritual emotions of readers and enables them to understand the importance of concealed intellectualism. Thus, Graff effectively utilizes pathos to evoke emotions among his readers. In addition, Graff applies ethos when talking about street smarts. For instance, Graff utilized ethos when he asserted that even though it is widely held that students have intellectual resources, many of these are concealed because they are linked to anti-intellectualism (Graff 22). This assertion provides credibility to Graff’s argument concerning hidden intellectualism among the so called street smarts. This illustrates how intellectualism is concealed by beliefs that activities such as arguments emanating from sports appear to be examples of anti-intellectualism. Therefore, the use of ethos has enabled Graff to provide credibility to his argument. Moreover, Graff appeals to logos to provide evidence for his argument on hidden intellectualism. For example, he states that people often view street smarts as anti-intellectual. He clearly explains that most street smarts do not perform well in academics; hence, their intellectualism potential is usually overlooked by academicians. Therefore, Graff argument is based on facts that, even though most street smarts perform dismally in academics, they possess intellectualism in other fields, like sports. This implies that Graff employs logical reasoning to provide evidence for hidden intellectualism and why street smarts’ intellectualism is neglected in the mainstream academic intellectualism.
Graff effectively presented his argument by means of ethos, pathos and logos to provide evidence concerning hidden intellectualism. This is because Graff uses personal stories about Warner to provide succinct illustration on how hidden intellectualism can be utilized in the mainstream academic intellectualism. Moreover, personal stories give Graff’s essay a strong preamble. He also demonstrates that intellectual conflicts surpass violent conflicts that employ guns. Graff’s essay is also captivating as he provides illustrations on why it is important to incorporate hidden intellectualism acquired via reading, critical thinking and writing about personal interests such as sports, music and fashion. In addition, Graff uses street smart theory to provide evidence for the need to incorporate social life into mainstream academic intellectualism. Graff provides personal experiences that transformed him from street smart to academic smart intellectual. He uses this to illustrate the significance of hidden intellectualism. It is evident that Graff employs ethos, pathos and logos to provide evidence for his argument.
Using pathos, ethos and logos, Graff composes an effective essay. He utilized these literary elements to provide evidence for existence of hidden intellectualism. Furthermore, Graff uses these elements to argue hidden intellectualism acquired during activities such as sports should be incorporated in the mainstream academic intellectualism.